Scientific Literature

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Production and catalytic upgrading of 2,3-butanediol fermentation broth into sustainable aviation fuel blendstock and fuel properties measurement

Date: 2023
Authors: Affandy, M;Zhu, C;Swita, M;Hofstad, B;Cronin, D;Elander, R;Lebarbier Dagle, V;
References: Fuel 333 126328
Keywords/Products: Meinhard;POINT;
With the increasing demand for sustainable supplies of aviation fuel and need to address climate change, new conversion technologies are needed to efficiently process biomass, produce high quality jet fuel blendstock, and meet carbon emission targets. This study demonstrates the synthesis, conditioning, and catalytic upgrading of 2,3-butanediol (BDO) fermentation broth into a jet fuel blendstock candidate. A high-titer 2,3-BDO fermentation broth (i.e., ?90 g/L) was produced at a 100-L scale and pretreated via nanofiltration to decrease the impurities level in the broth from 4.6 to 0.6 wt%. A novel process for catalytic upgrading of aqueous 2,3-BDO into a jet fuel blendstock candidate was developed, and each step was efficiently demonstrated. The catalytic steps include 1) 2,3-BDO dehydration into methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) over AlPO4, 2) MEK conversion into olefins over Zn1Zr10Ox, 3) oligomerization of olefins over a zeolite beta, and 4) hydrogenation over platinum/carbon. Both the model feed and real 2,3-BDO fermentation broth were tested for upgrading 2,3-BDO to MEK. With the real feed, a continuous loss of conversion (i.e., >50 % loss over ?140 h time-on-stream [TOS]) was partly attributed to reversible deactivation from coking species. However, the conversion remained stable with the model feed, which demonstrates the efficiency of the first step for converting aqueous 2,3-BDO (10 wt% in water). For upgrading MEK to olefins, high selectivity to olefins (i.e., 82.5 %) was obtained at high conversion levels (i.e., 93-98 %) with stable conditions being achieved for > 70-hours TOS. Oligomerization of light olefins, which was demonstrated for > 270 h TOS, mainly led to the formation of dimers (C8-10) and trimers (C13-14). The oligomerized product was hydrogenated and distilled to recover the jet fraction (35 mass% or 40.9 % carbon based yield), which consists mostly of desired isoalkanes (31.7 wt%), n-alkanes (24.5 wt%), and cycloalkanes (29.6 wt%). While some improvement is still needed to meet ASTM D7566 specifications for viscosity and final boiling point temperature, freezing point, density, aromatics content, and sulfur content of the jet blendstock candidate were within acceptable ranges, thus highlighting the potential of this process for production of jet fuel blendstock.

Assessment of horticultural products whose crops allow the use of copper-based pesticides by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

Date: 2023
Authors: dos Santos, L;Barata-Silva, C;Neto, S;Magalhães, C;Pereira, R;Malheiros, J;da Silva, A;do Couto Jacob, S;
References: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 119 105272
Keywords/Products: Meinhard;
Copper is present in the environment and animals at low levels and is considered an essential microelement for all living organisms, but in high amounts, it is considered toxic. The study's objective was to evaluate the concentration of Cu in different horticultural products marketed in Rio de Janeiro city by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The method provides sensitivity, precision, and accuracy appropriate to assess exposure to Cu due to its intake through vegetable consumption in Rio de Janeiro city. There is no significant statistical difference between Cu concentration in fruits (1.2 ± 0.4 mg kg-1) and non-leaf vegetables (0.9 ± 0.4 mg kg-1). The Cu concentration was lower in the root, tuber, and bulb samples (0.7 ± 0.4 mg kg-1). All samples allowed by law to use copper-containing pesticides presented concentrations below the limits established by Brazilian regulation. Despite these results, it is crucial to ensure the continuity of Cu monitoring in horticultural products, in order to prevent harm to human health.

Geographical and botanical differentiation of Mediterranean prickly pear using specific chemical markers

Date: 2023
Authors: Louppis, A;Constantinou, M;Kontominas, M;Blando, F;Stamatakos, G;
References: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 119 105219
Keywords/Products: ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;Perkin Elmer;Type C;
The aim of the present study was to differentiate Mediterranean prickly pear according to geographical origin and Cypriot prickly pear according to botanical origin based on individual vitamins, antioxidants and mineral content combined with chemometrics. Seventy-four prickly pear samples were collected during the harvest periods 2019 and 2020 from Cyprus, Greece, Italy and Spain. Likewise, 43 prickly pear samples were collected from three different Cypriot cultivars (yellow, red and spineless) during the same harvest periods. UPLC-MS/MS was used to determine individual vitamins and antioxidants; ICP-MS was used to determine minerals and UV spectrophotometry was used to determine total antioxidants and antioxidant activities. Classification rate based on the cross validation method was 86.5% according to geographical origin using 24 chemical markers and 90.7% according to botanical origin using 14 chemical markers. Satisfactory differentiation of geographical and botanical origin of prickly pear was achieved using analytical data including specific chemical markers in combination with chemometrics.

Toxic Elemental Impurities in Herbal Weight Loss Supplements; A Study Using ICP-OES Microwave-Assisted Digestion

Date: 2023
Authors: Al-Thani, G;Ibrahim, AE;Alomairi, M;Salman, BI;Hegazy, MM;Al-Harrasi, A;El Deeb, S;
References: Toxics 11 ~
Keywords/Products: ICP;ICP-OES;Meinhard;
The tendency of using weight loss herbal preparations is continuously increasing, especially for the widespread consumption of junk food that is characterized by high calories. Weight loss herbal preparations are considered a type of food supplement product, and, as such, the regulations governing their quality control might be minimal. These products could be locally formulated in any country or internationally imported. Being non-controlled products, the herbal weight-loss products may contain high levels of elemental impurities that might exceed the permissible ranges. Moreover, these products contribute to the total daily intake (TDI) of such elements, which might represent concerns about their potential toxicological danger. In this research, the elemental contents in such products were investigated. The inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine the levels of 15 elemental contents, namely, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, As, Co, Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb. The results showed that seven micro-elements, namely Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, Li and Cu, were either not detectable or at a concentration much lower than their tolerable limits. However, all studied macro-elements (Na, K, Ca and Mg), together with Fe, were found at considerable, yet safe levels. On the other hand, Mn, Al and As contents showed perturbing levels in some of the studied products. Finally, a conclusion was highlighted for the necessity for stricter surveillance of such herbal products.

Serum Iodine and Bromine in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients-An Observational Study in a Cohort of Portuguese Patients

Date: 2023
Authors: Novakova, G;Bonev, P;Duro, M;Azevedo, R;Couto, C;Pinto, E;Almeida, A;
References: Toxics 11 ~
Keywords/Products: Concentric;Concentric nebulizer;iCAP;ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;Thermo;
Background: Patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy are at high risk of disturbances in trace element status due to both the underlying disease and the hemodialysis process itself. Data on iodine and bromine levels in these patients are scarce. Methods: Using an ICP-MS analytical procedure, serum iodine and bromine levels were determined in a cohort (n = 57) of end-stage renal disease patients on chronic hemodialysis. The results were compared with those of a control group (n = 59). Results: Hemodialysis patients presented serum iodine levels within the normal range, slightly lower than in controls, but without reaching a statistically significant difference (67.6 ± 17.1 µg/L vs. 72.2 ± 14.8 µg/L; p = 0.1252). In contrast, serum bromine levels were much lower in patients (1086 ± 244 µg/L vs. 4137 ± 770 µg/L; p < 0.0001), at values only about 26% of the values observed in controls. Conclusions: Hemodialysis patients had normal serum iodine levels, but highly decreased serum bromine levels. The clinical significance of this finding requires further investigation, but it may be associated with sleep disturbances and fatigue that affect hemodialysis patients.

Levels of Heavy Metals in Grapevine Soil and Leaf Samples in Response to Seasonal Change and Farming Practice in the Cape Winelands

Date: 2023
Authors: Mahlungulu, A;Kambizi, L;Akinpelu, EA;Nchu, F;
References: Toxics 11 ~
Keywords/Products: ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;
Heavy metal toxicity is a major threat to the health of both humans and ecosystems. Toxic levels of heavy metals in food crops, such as grapes, can have devastating effects on plant health and the market value of the produce. Two important factors that may influence the prevalence of heavy metals in grapevines are seasonal change and farming practices. The objectives of this study were (i) to conduct a detailed pioneer screening of heavy metal levels in soils and grapevine leaf tissues in selected wine farms and (ii) to study the influence of season and farming on heavy metal levels in soils and grapevine leaf tissues. Soil and grapevine leaf samples were collected from demarcated areas in selected vineyards in the Cape Winelands region of South Africa. The sampling was conducted in winter and summer from the same sites. The soil and leaf samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The pooled data from the farms practising conventional or organic farming showed that seasonal variation had no significant effect (DF = 1, 22; p > 0.05) on the heavy metal contents in the soil. When the soil data from the winter and summer months were compared separately or pooled, the influence of agricultural practice was well-pronounced in As (DF = 1, 22, or 46; p < 0.05) and Cu (DF = 1, 22, or 46; p <0.05). The agricultural practice greatly influenced (DF = 1, 22; p< 0.05) Cu, As, Cr, and Hg uptake, with little effect on Ni, Co, Cd, and Hg leaf contents. Generally, the heavy metals studied (Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were substantially below the maximum permitted levels in plant and soil samples, per the recommendations of the WHO and Er indices, respectively. However, moderate contamination of the soils was recorded for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Pb. Remarkably, the Cu levels in the organic vineyard soils were significantly higher than in the conventional vineyards. Furthermore, based on the Igeo index, Cu occurred at moderate to heavy contamination levels.

Seasonal Variations in the Trace Elements and Mineral Profiles of the Bivalve Species, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Chamelea gallina and Donax trunculus, and Human Health Risk Assessment

Date: 2023
Authors: Peycheva, K;Panayotova, V;Stancheva, R;Merdzhanova, A;Dobreva, D;Parrino, V;Cicero, N;Fazio, F;Licata, P;
References: Toxics 11 319
Keywords/Products: Concentric;ICP;ICP-OES;Meinhard;Optima;Perkin Elmer;Type C;
This study aimed to provide data on selected toxic (Cd, Pb and Ni), essential (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and microelement (Na, K, Ca and Mg) concentrations in edible tissues of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), striped venus clam (Chamelea gallina) and the wedge clam (Donax trunculus). Samples were collected from the Black Sea (Bulgaria) four times over, a period of one year (2022). In comparison with the maximum permissible levels set by the EU and USFDA, all elemental concentration found in the bivalve species were lower than the prescribed limits. An estimation of the dietary metal intake through calculation of the target hazard quotients (THQ), hazard index (HI) and target risk (TR) was performed. The target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal and HI for combined metals were lower than 1, indicating no health risk for consumers due to the intake of either individual element or combined ones. The target risk value for toxic inorganic Pb and Cr was below 10?6, indicating no carcinogenic risk. According to these results, the consumption of these bivalve species is completely safe for human health.

Fluorine-selective post-plasma chemical ionization for enhanced elemental detection of fluorochemicals

Date: 2023
Authors: Tanen, J;White, S;Ha, D;Jorabchi, K;
References: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry ~ ~
Keywords/Products: Aerosol;HEN;Meinhard;
Post-plasma chemical ionization using Sc-based reagent ions improves the robustness of elemental F detection while maintaining high sensitivity.

Precise determination of 204Pb-based isotopic ratios in environmental samples by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Date: 2023
Authors: Grotti, M;Vecchio, M;Gobbato, D;Mataloni, M;Ardini, F;
References: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry ~ ~
Keywords/Products: Glass Nebulizer;ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;sample introduction;
Precise and accurate measurement of 204Pb-based isotopic ratios by quadrupole ICP-MS at the part-per-billion concentration level was achieved.

Iron and zinc biofortification and bioaccessibility in carrot ‘Dordogne’: Comparison between foliar applications of chelate and sulphate forms

Date: 2023
Authors: Buturi, C;Mauro, R;Fogliano, V;Leonardi, C;Giuffrida, F;
References: Scientia Horticulturae 312 111851
Keywords/Products: Concentric;Concentric nebulizer;Meinhard;
Hidden hunger is a worldwide problem, with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiency being the most common causes of mineral deficiency. Vegetable biofortification is an effective strategy to fight mineral deficiency, especially when commonly consumed vegetables are utilized, as in the case of carrots. This biofortification study aimed to investigate the response of the off-season carrot cv. Dordogne to different forms of foliar applications of Fe and Zn. The crop received four applications of both minerals, either in the form of inorganic salt (FeSO4 and ZnSO4) or chelated forms (Fe-DTPA and Zn-EDTA), at a concentration of 6 mM of these elements. FeSO4 was efficient in increasing the Fe concentration in carrots (by 52%), while Fe-DTPA caused no significant differences. Regarding Zn, both forms were effective in the biofortification, but Zn-EDTA proved to be more efficient in increasing root Zn concentration (+94%) than ZnSO4 (+57%). Bioaccessibility data, measured after in vitro digestion, showed that biofortified carrots with the chelated forms retained a full bioaccessibility of the minerals (around 100% as in control carrots). However, the sulfate-biofortified carrots showed reduced bioaccessibility values (60% and 80% for Fe and Zn, respectively). The results also showed an increase in dry matter, total nitrogen content and antioxidant activity in plants treated with Zn-EDTA. This trend paralleled the increase of polyphenols and total carotenoids content, suggesting the overall benefit of biofortification strategies conducted in the field. In conclusion, our study revealed that chelated forms of both minerals are preferable in the biofortification programs of carrots.

Speciation of selenium in fresh and cooked commonly consumed fish in Thailand

Date: 2023
Authors: Singhato, A;Judprasong, K;Sridonpai, P;Laitip, N;Ornthai, N;Yafa, C;
References: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 120 105303
Keywords/Products: Meinhard;
Fish are an important protein source commonly consumed by the Thai people due to their ready availability and affordability in local markets. Fish are also good sources of selenium (Se), an essential trace element that plays a key role in human health. This study investigated the ten most commonly consumed freshwater and marine fish in Thailand in terms of their chemical forms of Se as prepared fresh, boiled, or fried. Organic forms of Se including selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenocystine (SeCys2) as well as the inorganic forms of selenate (Se[VI]) and selenite (Se[IV]) were assessed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatograph coupled with Plasma Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. All fish species had Se(VI) and Se(IV) below the limit of detection. For fresh fish, mixed results indicated the major forms were SeMet and SeCys2. However for boiled and fried fish, SeMet was the major Se form. Fresh and fried longtail tuna were significantly higher in SeMet compared to the other fish (p < 0.05). Boiled short-bodied mackerel was significantly higher in SeMet compared to the other fish (p < 0.05). For SeCys2, fresh giant sea perch and fresh Indo-pacific Spanish mackerel, boiled short-bodied mackerel, fried striped snakehead, and fried Indo-pacific Spanish mackerel had significantly higher SeCys2 concentrations compared to the other fish using the same cooking methods (p < 0.05). Overall, therefore, most fish species commonly consumed in Thailand contained organic Se (SeMet and/or SeCys2) as the major form of Se.

Investigating the Cellular Uptake of Model Nanoplastics by Single-Cell ICP-MS

Date: 2023
Authors: Cassano, D;Bogni, A;La Spina, R;Gilliland, D;Ponti, J;
References: Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland) 13 ~
Keywords/Products: Concentric;Concentric nebulizer;ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;
A synthetic route to producing gold-doped environmentally relevant nanoplastics and a method for the rapid and high-throughput qualitative investigation of their cellular interactions have been developed. Polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) nanoparticles, doped with ultrasmall gold nanoparticles, were synthesized via an oil-in-water emulsion technique as models for floating and sedimenting nanoplastics, respectively. Gold nanoparticles were chosen as a dopant as they are considered to be chemically stable, relatively easy to obtain, interference-free for elemental analysis, and suitable for bio-applications. The suitability of the doped particles for quick detection via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), operating in single-cell mode (scICP-MS), was demonstrated. Specifically, the method was applied to the analysis of nanoplastics in sizes ranging from 50 to 350 nm, taking advantage of the low limit of detection of single-cell ICP-MS for gold nanoparticles. As an initial proof of concept, gold-doped PVC and PE nanoplastics were employed to quantify the interaction and uptake of nanoplastics by the RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line, using scICP-MS and electron microscopy. Macrophages were chosen because their natural biological functions would make them likely to internalize nanoplastics and, thus, would produce samples to verify the test methodology. Finally, the method was applied to assess the uptake by CaCo-2 human intestinal cells, this being a more relevant model for humanexposure to those nanoplastics that are potentially available in the food chain. For both case studies, two concentrations of nanoplastics were employed to simulate both standard environmental conditions and exceptional circumstances, such as pollution hotspot areas.

Human urinary and blood toxicokinetics of beryllium after accidental exposure

Date: 2023
Authors: Hiller, J;Naglav-Hansen, D;Drexler, H;Göen, T;
References: Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) 76 127125
Keywords/Products: ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;NexION;
Beryllium is known to have adverse health effects and is classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, data on systemic beryllium exposure in humans are rare and especially human toxicokinetics are largely uncharted. As such, the first reported multi-annual course of blood and urine concentrations after a high exposure scenario provides important new insights.For a medical follow-up biomonitoring samples were collected for 56 months from a male subject after an accidental and multi-faceted high exposure. Sampling started on day 2 post-exposure for urine and day 147 for blood. The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and plotted longitudinally as a function of time. Terminal half-lives were calculated assuming a first-order elimination process.Both matrices showed highly increased initial concentrations (about 100-fold), despite the 147-day delay in blood sampling, and a marked decline over time. In urine, a two-phase excretion process was suspected based on the longitudinal data. Calculations gave terminal half-lives of 117.5 days and 666.5 days for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Blood kinetics called for a terminal half-life of 103.5 days. Elimination kinetics in blood and urine were comparable, simultaneously gathered samples showed an excellent correlation (R² = 0.985).The long-term follow-up after a high initial exposure to beryllium provides the first detailed insights into the elimination course of systemically available beryllium in humans. Conform kinetics of beryllium in urine and blood and the strong correlation between both parameters indicate high data validity and support the good representation of the current systemically available beryllium by urine and blood concentration in humans. The relatively long terminal half-lives in both matrices suggest a possible accumulation in humans in case of repeated exposures.

Soil Heavy Metal Absorption Potential of Azolla pinnata and Lemna gibba with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Farming

Date: 2023
Authors: Herath, B;Bamunuarachchige, C;Stephenson, S;Elgorban, A;Asad, S;Kumla, J;Suwannarach, N;Karunarathna, S;Yapa, P;
References: Sustainability 15 4320
Keywords/Products: Concentric;ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;
This study assessed the potential uptake of soil-contaminated heavy metals by Azolla pinnata and Lemna gibba in combination with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in traditional and improved rice varieties. Total levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) in soil, rice roots, shoots, grains, A. pinnata, and L. gibba were estimated using ICP-MS. The percentage colonization in AMF-inoculated and AMF-uninoculated rice varied from 1.13-30.67% and 1.33-5.42%, respectively. These findings suggested that AMF provide protection to rice plants against the combined toxicity of Cd, As, Pb, and Hg in rice field soil. The combined interaction of AMF, organic fertilizer, and A. pinnata decreased heavy metal accumulation in rice roots, shoots, and grains in both tested varieties. The intake and subsequent accumulation of Cd, As, Pb, and Hg in the rice grains differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two rice varieties. Furthermore, it was revealed that the AMF-inoculated rice plants reduced the translocation of heavy metals from root to shoot. Therefore, it can be concluded that heavy metal absorption and accumulation in rice can be reduced by the application of AMF, organic fertilizer, and A. pinnata together in rice farming.

Arsenic speciation in canned tuna fish samples (Thunnus) using ionic chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Date: 2023
Authors: Hoyne, T;Vieira, L;Heringer, O;Brandão, G;Souza, J;Carneiro, M;
References: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 116 105051
Keywords/Products: Concentric;Concentric nebulizer;ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;
Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted on in oil and in brine canned solid tuna samples using ionic chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). First, the method was optimized and validated. The extraction of water-soluble arsenic species (arsenobetaine (AsB), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), As (III), and As (V)) was performed with (NH4)2CO3 at pH 10.5. The presence of the sample matrix showed no effect on the selectivity of the method by a t-test (p < 0.05) and an external calibration method was applied. The limits of quantification for the five arsenic species were 0.59 mg kg?1 (AsB), 0.10 mg kg?1 (DMA), 0.12 mg kg?1 (As (III)), 0.07 mg kg?1 (MMA) and 0.10 mg kg?1 (As (V)). Method accuracy was tested through the analysis of the reference material BCR-627 (tuna fish muscle tissue) and a good agreement was obtained. Total arsenic in the solid canned tuna ranged from 2.65 to 5.81 mg kg?1 in-oil samples and from 2.74 to 5.70 mg kg?1 in the in-brine samples, levels higher than the limits established by the Brazilian sanitary standards. However, the speciation showed that the major species is the non-toxic arsenobetaine.

The relationship between dissolved radon and other geochemical parameters in Campi Flegrei volcanic aquifer (Southern Italy): A follow-up study

Date: 2023
Authors: Ebrahimi, P;Guarino, A;Allocca, V;Caliro, S;Cicchella, D;Albanese, S;
References: Applied Geochemistry 151 105607
Keywords/Products: Glass Nebulizer;ICP;ICP-OES;Meinhard;TDS;
Campi Flegrei is one of the most active volcanic areas in the world and assessing the potential proxies of volcanic-related phenomena is critical. Therefore, the spatial distribution of radon and carbon dioxide in groundwater and the statistical relationships between the dissolved gases and other variables deserve further attention. Compositional data analysis (CoDA) was proposed at the end of the last century and further developed in the last decades for reliable data mining, but its potential has not been fully explored for characterization of the groundwater aquifers affected by hydrothermal activity. Based on a prospecting campaign mainly aimed at the determination of both radon and carbon dioxide in Campi Flegrei groundwater, this article explores the spatial patterns of these gases in the local aquifer system and uses a CoDA approach to extract the relevant information and to determine the meaningful geochemical associations. The results show that the spatial distribution of both dissolved gases corresponds to the hydrothermal system. The logratio transformed CO2 (aq) distinguishes bicarbonate-rich groundwater better than the raw values. Principal component analysis reveals two associations: A1) C a 2 + , M g 2 + , K + , S O 4 2 ? , H C O 3 ? + C O 2 and pH; and A2) N a + , C l ? , As, B, Li, Rn, TDS and T. It highlights that the groundwater composition is generally influenced by two main factors: (1) meteoric water, which is modified by CO2?rich magmatic gases in some cases; and (2) hydrothermal fluid and/or seawater. The results are in agreement with the literature and application of CoDA is recommended in future investigations because the study area is highly populated and considering the compositional nature of geochemical data might help mitigate the volcanic hazard at Campi Flegrei.

Elemental and Cu-Zn isotopic compositions of two bolete mushrooms grown on contrasting substrates

Date: 2023
Authors: Andronikov, A;Andronikova, I;Sebek, O;Martinkova, E;Stepanova, M;Vitkova, H;Antalova, E;
References: Applied Geochemistry 150 105594
Keywords/Products: Agilent;Concentric;Glass Nebulizer;Meinhard;
We studied elemental and Cu-Zn isotopic compositions of Boletus edulis and Xerocomus chrysenteron mushroom samples collected from three small catchments underlain by contrasting bedrock (leucogranite, amphibolite, and serpentinite). Elements such as Ag, P, K, Zn, S, Cd, and Rb are significantly enriched in the mushroom's fruiting bodies relative to the substrate. All analyzed elements are distributed unevenly within the fruiting bodies, with the cap and sporophore generally containing higher amounts of trace elements. Overall, the studied samples of the B. edulis more efficiently accumulate nutrients and minerals than the X. chrysenteron samples. Concentration of most trace elements in mushrooms is not site-dependent with the exception of Ca, Rb, Ti, Ba and Sr. Isotopic composition of mushrooms is characterized by higher uptake of heavier isotopes of Zn (?66Znstipe-soil = 0.48-0.77‰) for the both species, lighter isotopes of Cu (?65Custipe-soil = ?0.73 to ?1.52‰) for B. edulis, and heavier Cu isotopes (?65Custipe-soil = +0.37 to +0.43‰) for X. chrysenteron. The B. edulis samples are characterized by (?65Custipe > ?65Cucap > ?65Cusporophore) and (?66Znstipe > ?66Zncap > ?66Znsporophore) within-mushroom isotope distribution schemes, whereas the X. chrysenteron samples display different Cu (?65Custipe < ?65Cucap > ?65Cusporophore) and Zn (?66Znstipe > ?66Zncap < ?66Znsporophore) isotope distribution schemes. Changes in fungal isotopic signatures relative to the substrate and within the fruiting body suggest that both fungi species fractionate Cu and Zn isotopes with significantly pronounced differences between the species.

Heavy metals in unrecorded Albanian rakia: A pilot study on a potential public health risk

Date: 2023
Authors: Muhollari, T;Sz?cs, S;Sajtos, Z;McKee, M;Baranyai, E;Ádány, R;Pál, L;
References: Heliyon 9 e13717
Keywords/Products: Agilent;ICP;Meinhard;sample introduction;
Unrecorded alcohol has been linked to illness above and beyond that caused by ethanol alone because of the presence of toxic contaminants. While it can be found in all countries, consumption is high in Albania, where it is frequently consumed as a fruit brandy known as rakia. Among the contaminants identified previously in such products, metals including lead have been detected at levels posing a risk to health but there is little information on their presence in rakia. To fill this gap, we measured the level of ethanol and 24 elements among them toxic metals in 30 Albanian rakia samples. We found that 63.3% of rakia samples had ethanol concentration above 40% v/v. We also showed that there was a significant difference between the measured [mean: 46.7% v/v, interquartile range (IQR): 43.4-52.1% v/v] and reported (mean: 18.9% v/v, IQR: 17.0-20.0% v/v) concentrations of ethanol in rakia. Among the metals detected, aluminium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, and zinc were present in rakia samples at concentrations ranging between 0.013 and 0.866 mg/l of pure alcohol (pa), 0.025-31.629 mg/l of pa, 0.004-1.173 mg/l of pa, 0.185-45.244 mg/l of pa, 0.044-1.337 mg/l of pa, and 0.004-10.156 mg/l of pa, respectively. Copper and lead were found to be the greatest concern posing a potential public health risk. Although the estimated daily intake of these heavy metals from unrecorded rakia was below their toxicological threshold, the concentrations of lead and copper exceeded their limit value of 0.2 and 2.0 mg/l of pa specified for spirits in 33% and 90% of samples, respectively. Therefore, the possibility of adverse health effects cannot be excluded completely. Our findings highlight the need for action by policymakers against the risks posed by these products in Albania.

Discrete micro-volume suspension injection to microwave induced plasma for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead pre-concentrated on multiwalled carbon nanotubes in optical emission spectrometry

Date: 2023
Authors: Janeda, M;Krawczyk-Coda, M;?lachci?ski, M;
References: Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 201 106614
Keywords/Products: Meinhard;sample introduction;
A discrete sample introduction system (DSIS) for the direct micro-volume nanomaterials (NMs) suspension injection has been developed toward the simultaneous determination of Cd and Pb pre-concentrated (by dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (DMSPE)) on oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (DMSPE-DSIS-MIP OES). On-axis low-volume spray chambers with flow focusing micro nebulizer (continues mode) and v-groove type pneumatic nebulizer (discontinues mode) for microliter-volume suspension introduction were tested. A univariate approach and the simplex optimization procedure were used to achieve optimized conditions and derive analytical figures of merit. Minimum dead volume, high nebulization and suspension transport efficiency were obtained by using miniaturized spray chamber/v-groove pneumatic nebulizer interface for 10 ?L suspension injection in discontinues mode (at 0.5 mL min?1 pump speed). Analytical performance of DMSPE-DSIS-MIP OES method was characterized by determination of the limits of detection (0.7 and 0.1 ng mL?1 for Cd and Pb, respectively) and precision ranged from 6% to 8%. Quantitative data obtained for water reference materials (ERM-CA011b and SRM 1643e) were in good agreement, according to the t-test, for a confidence level of 95%, with the corresponding reference values, proving the potential of this analysis system for trace analysis via MIP OES. The proposed method had been successfully applied for the determination of Cd and Pb in water real samples.

Quercus suber Bark as a Sustainable Source of Value-Added Compounds: Experimental Studies with Cork By-Products

Date: 2023
Authors: Rego, L;Mota, S;Torres, A;Pinto, C;Cravo, S;Silva, J;Páscoa, R;Almeida, A;Amaro, F;Pinho, P;Cidade, H;Silva, J;Sousa Lobo, J;Almeida, I;
References: Forests 14 543
Keywords/Products: Concentric;Concentric Quartz Nebulizer;iCAP;ICP;ICP-MS;Meinhard;Quartz Nebulizer;Thermo;
Quercus suber L. bark (cork) is a sustainable material due to its ability to regenerate. The aim of this work was to explore cork powders, by-products of the cork industry, as sustainable sources of value-added compounds. Two types of cork powder were studied: coarse (P0) and fine (P1). A broad physicochemical characterization was carried out, regarding particle size, color, moisture content, hygroscopicity, pH, heavy metal content, NIR spectra, and volatile compounds. DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content were also evaluated for an ethanolic P1 extract. For both powders, Hg, As, Cd and Pb contents were below the acceptable limits and volatile compounds commonly used as fragrances were found in their composition. P1 had a smaller and more homogenous particle size, lighter brownish color, lower pH value, and lower moisture content than P0, and therefore appears to be more suitable for industrial application. P1 ethanolic extract also showed a high scavenging activity and a content of phenolic compounds of 50.46 ± 0.63 mg (as gallic acid equivalents) per g of extract. In conclusion, P1 cork powder seems to be a promising source of upcycled ingredients, such as fragrances and antioxidants, for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic industries.